Spring is now well underway and I have a bunch of queencells and virgin queens on the go. We now need some decent (warm) weather.
Once queens emerge from their queencells, they need 5 or 6 days to mature before they are ready to mate. They mate on the wing with multiple drones so they have a wide genetic mix of offspring. Mating only occurs when the weather is warm enough – say around 18 degrees or warmer which is something we don’t see much of early in the year. Once mated the sperm has to migrate to the spermatheca (a holding vessel) which takes a couple of days or so. the spermatheca can store and nourish enough sperm for several years. It is only after that will the queen start to lay. In a mini-nuc she will lay after 2 or 3 days. In a larger colony it takes longer. My guess is that it takes more time for her pheromone to spread around a large colony before she is fed and prepared for a life of egg-laying.
Queens mate in drone congregation areas. I have no idea where they might be near my apiaries, however the bees seem to find them and apparently they can be found in the same location year after year.
I have, on occasions, had to discard queens that have failed to mate as after around 4 weeks she is unable to mate and will eventually become a drone-layer. Let’s hope Mother Nature is kind and we see some warm weather soon.